Soil Degradation and Conservation in Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems

 

EEB 298/395  Tuesday, Thursday 11-12:15, TLS 115

Dr. Zoe Cardon, zoe.cardon@uconn.edu, 486-3868

 

 

           

Date

Topic

Discussion

Leader

Questions e-mailed (with Dr. C's ok) by...

Paper

Status

Jan 23

 

Organization and introductions

Dr. C.

 

 

Jan 28

Introduction to soil: what is it?  How does it "age"? What "services" does soil provide?

Dr. C. (demo!)

Jan. 24

 

Jan 30

 

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

Feb 4

Agriculture--The Dust Bowl of the U.S. in the 1930s

 

 

Jan. 31

 

Feb 6

 

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

Feb 11

Agriculture – Nutrient limitation, fertilization, and greenhouse gases

 

Feb. 7

 

Feb 13

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Feb 18

Special lecture:   Robin Chazdon (forests in the tropics)

 

 

 

Feb 20

Special lecture:   Thomas Morris (sustainable agriculture)

 

 

 

 

 

Feb 25

Soil salinization – multiple causes

 

 

 

Feb. 21

 

Feb 27

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Mar 4

Soil acidification

 

 

Feb. 28

Topic selec-ted, 10 refer-ences due

Mar 6

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Mar 11

Soil carbon storage in agro-, urban, and "natural" ecosystems: countering the rise in atmospheric CO2?

 

 

Mar 7

 

 

Mar 13

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Mar 25

Soil Biodiversity

 

 

Mar 14

 

Mar 27

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

 

Date

Topic

Discussion

Leader

Questions e-mailed (with Dr. C's ok) by...

Paper

Status

Apr 1

To be determined by students

 

 

Mar 28

Outline due

 

Apr 3

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Apr 8

To be determined by students

 

 

Apr 4

 

 

Apr 10

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Apr 15

To be determined by students

 

 

Apr 11

 

Apr 17

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Apr 22

To be determined by students

 

 

Apr 18

Complete

Rough Draft due

Apr 24

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

Apr 29

To be determined by students

 

 

Apr 25

 

 

May 1

 

 

Dr. C.

 

 

 

May 6

20 Minute Presentations by Students on Semester Paper Research Topics

 

 

Final Paper Due

 

 

Potential topics for later in the semester (Dr. C has readings for all of these, and some other topics, already, but students are encouraged to follow their interests and suggest papers too):

·                    Soils along urban-rural gradients – how do "heat islands" and pollution associated with cities affect soil properties and functions? 

·                    Bioremediation – how can micro-organisms be used in soils to "clean up" highly polluted sites? 

·                    Footprints still visible today (on the ground and from the air!) of ancient raised-bed agriculture around Lake Titicaca and in Bolivia – what can be learned from these ancient practices? 

·                    ...?

 


Class format:

Class time will be spent in a combination of lecture and discussion. Over the first few weeks, Dr. C. will present basic information about soils that is necessary to understand how and why soils have been degraded world-wide.  After this background has been laid, Dr. C. will move toward using lecture time to present information complementary to assigned readings.

 

  • Tuesdays:  You will have substantially more assigned reading for Tuesday discussion than for Thursday discussion.  Students will lead discussions on Tuesdays.  Dr. C. will lecture only briefly at the beginning of Tuesday class.

 

  • Thursdays:  You will have a smaller reading assignment for Thursday.  Dr. C. will lecture for slightly longer on Thursdays, providing necessary background for readings, and linking ideas across weeks.

 

Topics to be covered in this class will be set partially by the interests of the students. 

Initial weeks of directed readings are designed to orient students to properties of soils, within the context of challenges in soil degradation and soil management.  Later weeks will be more free-form, with students taking a stronger and stronger role selecting readings and directing discussion.

 

Friday of each week, we will e-mail a small group of "thought questions" about the assigned readings to guide your preparation for class discussion the following Tuesday.  These will not be the only topics discussed from the readings!  They are meant to be a guide to some major ideas only.  Discussion leaders are responsible for working with Dr. C. to provide these questions the Friday before their Tuesday discussion.  This will require that discussion leaders look at the readings before talking with Dr. C. about potential questions to be e-mailed Friday.  Note that later in the semester, as the reading we do begins to depend more and more on student interests, discussion leaders will need to decide on their topic of interest at least a week before they lead discussion, then work with Dr. C. to find appropriate readings and put together appropriate questions for Friday e-mailing.  (There are lists of potential topics and potential readings at the end of this handout.  Students can draw from these suggestions later in the semester, or they can work with Dr. C. to find information about other topics they want to study.)

 

 

Readings:

There will be copies of readings in the EEB office, third floor of Torrey Life Sciences, in a folder in the filing cabinet.  The folder will be labeled with the name of this course, and readings will be labeled by date.  You may remove readings ONLY to photocopy them *in the EEB office*.  (To do this, talk to the person behind the desk.  She or he will make you copies, and you will pay him/her 5 cents per copy.)  Do not take readings away!!   Often, PDF versions of readings will be available on the web site.  Also, several books are being used extensively in the course, and I have placed a copy of them on reserve in the library.  I've also put on reserve a copy of a very good reference book about soils (Brady and Weil, The Nature and Properties of Soils), in case you want to look up terms or read a little more about soil science, and a very good reference book about biogeochemistry and ecosystems science (Schlesinger, Biogeochemistry: an Analysis of Global Change).

 

 

Books on reserve in the library:

Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  (1991) Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Yale University Press, New Haven.

Brady, N.C., Weil, R. R. (2002)  The Nature and Properties of Soils.  13th edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.  (This book had to  be ordered new, so there may be a delay before it is available.  There are earlier editions of it in the regular stacks at the library.)

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  (2001)  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Schlesinger, W. H.  (1997)  Biogeochemistry: an Analysis of Global Change. Academic Press, San Diego.

Thompson, Paul B. (1995) The Spirit of the Soil -- Agriculture and Environmental Ethics. Routledge, NY, NY.

Worster, Donald. (1979)   DustBowl -- The Southern Plains in the 1930s.  Oxford University Press, NY, NY. 

 

Grading:

Grading will be based on class participation, preparation, written answers to questions, effectiveness of presentation and leadership by each discussion leader, and the semester paper and final presentation.

 

 

 

Points

Participation (when not discussion leader)

1.5 pts per week (13 wks)

19.5

Preparation for discussion  (when not discussion leader)

1.5 pts per week (13 wks)

19.5

Questions answered and turned in (five different weeks)

3 pts per question answered

15

Discussion leading

point assignment per

session depends on

class size

19

Semester paper

 

 

     Reference list

2 pts

2

     Outline

4 pts

4

     Draft

6 pts

6

     Final paper

10 pts

10

In-class presentation of research topic

5 pts

5

TOTAL

 

100

 

Likely grade percentages will be 93-100% A,  90-93% A-, 87-90% B+, 83-87% B,  80-83% B-,  77-80% C+,  73-77% C,  70-73%  C-,  67-70% D+, 63-67% D, 60-63% D-, <60% F.

 

Questions answered and turned in:

Each Friday, several broad "thought" questions will be e-mailed to you all to help guide your thinking for Tuesday's discussion.  You need to answer one question from that group of thought questions on five different Tuesdays during the semester.  You choose the Tuesdays where you want to turn in an answer to a question.  This allows you to choose the topic you will be answering a question about, and allows you to choose the weeks when you will need to write up the answer to the question. 

***Your answer MUST:

(1) be typed in 12 point font, 1 inch margins all sides, 8.5 x 11" paper

(2) be double spaced (not single spaced), between ½ and one full page long, no more, no less.  (I won't read it if it doesn't fit within these guidelines, and you will get a zero for the assignment!)

(3) be turned in during class, not after class.

(4) be based on and refer to the reading! You can bring in other relevant information, especially during class, and I encourage you to do so.  But, your written answers to these questions are your chance to show, in writing, that you've done the reading and thought about it.

 

***AND...

(1) Do not quote extensively from the reading.  I want to see ­your ideas in your own words.

(2) Do not plagiarize!  Go to http://english.uconn.edu/Undergraduate/plagpol.html to make sure you understand what plagiarism is.  Also, go to http://www/dosa.uconn.edu/Code2.html to make sure you understand how plagiarism (and other academic misconduct) is dealt with at UConn.  (Notice too that you have student rights, spelled out at http://www.dosa.uconn.edu/AppendA.html )

 

 

Semester paper:

The semester paper can be on any topic relating to soil degradation, restoration, or management to deter degradation.  It should be 9-11 pages long for undergraduates (19-21 pages for graduate students), typed, double spaced, 12 point font, 8.5" x 11" paper, with no more than 25 references.  References should be either (1) from primary literature (e.g. journal articles) only, OR (2) from a mix of primary and secondary literature. The paper should synthesize information, not simply repeat information from the references.  Direct quoting of sources is strongly discouraged.  Benchmarks for paper preparation are given in the syllabus below.  Dr. C. is happy to discuss potential paper topics and/or provide guidance in finding references.   Again, watch for plagiarism! 

 

 

 

*********************************************************************************

Assigned readings. 

 

(Readings are listed in the order in which I suggest you read them.)

 

For Jan. 28    Intro to Soils -- Assigned reading

Wolfe, David. W. 2001  Introduction. IN: Tales from theUnderground -- A Natural History of Subterranean Life.  Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA. pp. 1-14.

Logan, William B.  1991.  The Soil Man. IN: Dirt -- The Ecstatic Skin of the Earth.  Riverhead Books, NY, NY.  pp. 186-193.

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  Soil development from the Devonian to Mendocino and Hawaii.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  69-76.

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  Concerns about soil in the modern world.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  3-16.

 

Pygmy forest links

http://geoimages.berkeley.edu/GeoImages/Johnson/Biomes/BiomesSub/PygmyForest.html

http://nrs.ucop.edu/reserves/pygmy.html

http://www.virtualguidebooks.com/NorthCalif/NorthCalCoast/LittleRiver/PygmyForestBoardwalk.html

http://www.fs.fed.us/land/pubs/ecoregions/ch32.html

http://geoimages.berkeley.edu/GeoImages/Johnson/Landforms/RocksWxing/PodzolPygmyForest.html

http://www.calacademy.org/calwild/pacdis/issues/spring97/trail.htm  (this shows somebody looking at a  15-30 year old cypress tree!)

http://www.nature.nps.gov/nnl/Registry/USA_Map/States/California/california.htm  (map of CA with pygmy forest marked)

Hawaii info, Vitousek lab

Big Island flows visualized  http://www.stanford.edu/group/Vitousek/flows.html

http://www.stanford.edu/group/Vitousek/  nice animation of island production

http://www.mycena.sfsu.edu/hawaiian/Agaricales.html  map of the archipelago

http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/Hawaiian.html  hotspots info...map of ocean ridges etc.

 

 

For Jan. 30

Daily, Gretchen C.,  Matson, Pamela A., and Vitousek, Peter M.  1997.  Ecosystem services supplied by soil.  IN:  Nature's Services -- Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems.  Ed: Gretchen C. Daily.  Island Press, Washington, D.C.  pp. 113-132.

 

 

For Feb. 4  Agriculture – Sod-busting and its consequences

Worster, Donald.1979.  Introduction.  IN: DustBowl -- The Southern Plains in the 1930s.  Oxford University Press, NY, NY.  pp. 3-8.

Worster, Donald.1979.  The black blizzards blow in.  IN: DustBowl -- The Southern Plains in the 1930s.  Oxford University Press, NY, NY.  pp. 9-25.

Worster, Donald.  1979.  What holds the earth together.  IN: DustBowl -- The Southern Plains in the 1930s.  Oxford University Press, NY, NY.  pp. 66-79.

Thompson, Paul B. 1995.  The ethics of soil.  IN: The Spirit of the Soil -- Agriculture and Environmental Ethics.  Routledge, NY, NY. pp. 1-20.

 

Web site with interesting conversations with people who lived through the dust bowl, as well as Worster's perspective: 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/dustbowl/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/dustbowl/filmmore/index.html

 

For Feb. 6 

Worster, Donald.  1979.  Sodbusting.  IN: DustBowl -- The Southern Plains in the 1930s.  Oxford University Press, NY, NY.  pp. 80-97.

Hillel, Daniel J.  1991.  Man-made deserts.  IN: Out of the Earth -- Civilization and the Life of the Soil.  The Free Press, NY, NY. pp. 186-199.

 

 

Feb. 11  Agriculture – Nutrient limitations – fertilize?  How?  Why?  What are the consequences?

Jackson, Wes.  1991. Nature as the measure for a sustainable agriculture.  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 43-58.

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  Managing soils for productivity and environmental quality.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  17-23.

Sanchez, P. A. and Leakey, R. R. B. 1997.  Land use transformation in Africa: three determinants for balancing food security with natural resource utilization.  European Journal of Agronomy 7:15-23.

Sanchez, P.A. 2002.  Soil Fertility and Hunger in Africa.  Science 295:2019-2020.

Skim Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  Soil change over millennia, centuries, and decades.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  40-50.

 

Web sites that Diane used during class:

http://www.dsw.co.il/map_index.htm

http://www.dsw.co.il/PhotoGallery_rotem.htm

http://www.cargillfertilizer.com/Operations/operminesf.htm

http://earthsci.terc.edu/content/investigations/es2206/es2206page01.cfm?chapter_no=investigation

 

Pedro Sanchez in the news, winning the World Food Prize:  http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2002/08/12_food.html

 

Feb. 13

Robertson, G. P., E. A. Paul, and R. Harwood. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: Contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289: 1922-1925.

 

   

Very simplified N cycle!  Where would you put NH3? Nitrite? Immobilization? Fixation? Denitrification? Nitrification? Ammonification?

 

 

Feb. 18  Roland de Gouvenain – Madagascar!

Feb. 20  Thomas Morris – Agriculture and the N-cycle

 

 

Feb. 25  Salinization – Where it's happening, why it's happening, and some control measures

Brady, N., and Weil, R. (2002) Soils of dry regions. IN:  The Nature and Properties of Soils,13th ed., Prentice Hall NJ, pp. 412, 419-422, Box 10.1 pg 437  

Cancho, O., Greiner, R., Fulloon, L. (2001)  An economic analysis of farm forestry as a means of controlling dryland salinity.  The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics  45: 233-256.  (**READ ONLY 233-237!)

Kotb, T. H. S., Watanabe, T., Ogino, Y., and Tanji, K. K. (2000) Soil salinization in the Nile Delta and related policy issues in Egypt.  Agricultural Water Management 43: 239-261.

Zalidis, G., Stamatiadis, S., Takavakoglou, V., Eskridge, K., Misopolinos, N.  (2002)  Impacts of agricultural practices on soil and water quality in the Mediterranean region and proposed assessment methodology.  Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment  88: 137-146.

 

Feb. 27  ...then and now...

Jacobsen, T., and Adams, R. M. (1958)  Salt and silt in ancient Mesopotamian agriculture.  Science  128:1251-1258.

Frommer, W. B., Ludewig, U., and Rentsch, D.  (1999)  Taking transgenic plants with a pinch of salt.  Science 285:1222-1223.

 

March 4

Likens, Gene E. 1991.  Toxic winds: whose responsibility?  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 136-152.

DeHayes, d. H., Schaberg, P. G., Hawley, G. J., and Strimbeck, G. R. (1999)  Acid rain impacts on calcium nutrition and forest health.  Bioscience 49(10): 789-800.

Gower, C., Rowell, D. L., Nortcliff, S., and Wild, A. (1995) Soil acidification: comparison of acid deposition from the atmosphere with inputs from the litter/soil organic layer.  Geoderma 66: 85-98.

Larcher, W. (1995)  Physiological Plant Ecology, 3rd edition.  Springer.  pp. 200-202.

 

Tracy likely will also refer to this article, but it is not required reading:

Likens, G.E., Driscoll, C. T., and Buso, D. C.  1996.  Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem.  Science 272:244-246.

 

March 6

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  The birth of a new forest.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  pp.  151-159.

Richter Jr., Daniel D. and Markewitz, Daniel.  2001.  Soil reacidification and circulation of nutrient cations.  IN:  Understanding Soil Change -- Soil Sustainability over Millennia, Centuries, and Decades.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  (pp.  182-196,) especially 182-183 and 192-196.

Daily, Gretchen C. and Ellison, Katherine.  2002.  New York: How to put a watershed to work.  IN: The New Economy of Nature -- The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable.  Island Press, Washington, DC.  pp. 61-85

 

 

March 11 – Carbon storage in soils...politics, economics, and science

Pages 512-521 in Chapter 12 of The Nature and Properties of Soils.  Especially look at figure 12.15...there is a lot of information in there!

Also, from the American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Sept 2002 vol 17 Issue 3 (Special Issue:  Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture)

Carpentier, Chantal L.  Carbon sequestration in agriculture and forestry to offset carbon emissions and achieve sustainable production systems.  Pages 106-109

Tornich, T. P. et al.  Carbon offsets for conservation and development in Indonesia?  pages 125-138

Lal, R. (2001) Myths and facts about soils and the greenhouse effect.  IN: Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, Lal, R. (ed.) SSSA Special Publication No. 57, Madison, WI.

 

March 13 – Carbon storage in soils...politics, economics, and science

Pages 521-540  in Chapter 12 of The Nature and Properties of Soils

 

March 25 – Soil Biodiversity (brief introduction to soil functions, and philosophical/ethical discussions of biodiversity decline)

Groffman, P.M. and P.J. Bohlen. 1999. Soil and sediment biodiversity: cross-system comparisons and large scale effects. BioScience 49:139-148. 

Wilson, E.O. 1991.  Biodiversity, prosperity, and value.  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 3-10.

Myers, N. 1991.  Biological diversity and global security.  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 11-25.

Ehrenfeld, D. 1991.  The management of diversity:  a conservation paradox.  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp.26-39.

 

March 27 – Soil Biodiversity (Who is down there, how do organisms influence food web stability, and the diversity-stability idea)

Pages 449-459 and 484-495 from Chapter 11 in Brady and Weil  (I'll copy off the whole chapter for you even though  I'm only asking you to read these specific pages...there are pages on earthworms on "worm day" maybe we could read those pages?)

 

Nematodes at Colorado state

http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/soil/images/11bf59.jpg   bacterial feeder headdress

http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/soil/plant.html  plant feeders (stylet clear in head)

http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/soil/images/mono3.jpg  predatory…see gullet!

 

GLIDE  Global Litter Invertebrate Decomposition Experiment (GLIDE)

http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/glide/

http://forests.org/articles/reader.asp?linkid=8482  Diana Wall story

 

Soil biology primer slide set

http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/soil_biology.htm

 

WSU soil biology images

http://css.wsu.edu/compost/biology/

 

Center for Microbial Ecology

http://www.cme.msu.edu/

http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/ the microbe zoo

 

Soil Zoo

http://www.waite.adelaide.edu.au/school/Soil/zoo.html

 

 

April 1 – Wetlands worldwide

All reading from:

Mitsch W.J. and Gooselink J.G. (2000) Wetlands.  3rd Edition.  John Wisley and Sons Inc. New York.

Pp. 3-21 Chapter 1: Wetlands, Human History, Use, and Science

Pp. 35-68 Chapter 3: Wetlands of the world

Pp. 155-157,187-203 Chapter 6: Wetland Biogeochemistry

Pp. 571-591, 604-609 Chapter 16: Values and Valuation of Wetlands

Pp. 611-627 Chapter 17:  Human Impacts and Management of Wetlands

(Becky notes that though this looks like a huge amount of reading, in fact there are many many pictures, graphs, etc.  She recommends that you concentrate on parts that particularly interest you, and read quickly through other parts.)

 

 

April 8, 10 – Worms!

Wolfe, David W.  2001.  Tales from the Underground: a Natural History of Subterranean Life.  Cambridge, Ma: Perseus Publishing.  READ When the humble explain the great.  Ch 6, pg 107-122.

Darwin, Charles.  1881.  The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms with Observations on their Habits.  London: Murray.  READ the Conclusion, ch 7, pg 305-313.

Hendrix, P.F. and P.J. Bohlen.  2002.  Exotic earthworm invasions in North America: ecological and policy implications.  Bioscience 52 (9): 801-811. 

Kourtev, P.S., W.Z. Huang and J.G. Ehrenfeld.  1999.  Differences in earthworm densities and nitrogen dynamics in soils under exotic and native plant species.  Biological Invasions 1: 237-245. 

easy reading: Murray, M.  Aug 19, 2002.  Exotic new bait worms import worries.  USA Today.

 

Links used in class:

http://www.nrri.umn.edu/worms

http://www.sltrib.com/2002/aug/08012002/thursday/758151.htm

http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/invert/wormsnd/photos/coccoon.htm

 

 

April 15, 17 – Sampling at the farm (no-till/till management, and sustainable agriculture)

Thompson, Paul B. (1995).  Sustainable agriculture.  IN: The Spirit of the Soil -- Agriculture and Environmental Ethics.  Routledge, NY, NY. pp. 147-172.

Hendrix, P.F., Parmelee, R. W., Crossley Jr., D. A., Coleman, D. C., Odum, E. P., and Groffman, P. M. (1986)  Detritus food webs in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems.  Bioscience, 36: 374-380.

 

Ref pointed at in class:

Crossley Jr., D. A., and Blair, J. M. (1991)  A high-efficiency, "low-technology" Tullgren-type extractor for soil microarthropods.  Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 34: 187-192.

 

 

April 22,24 – Tropical ecology and policy—the question of reserves

 

Daily, Gretchen C. and Ellison, Katherine.  2002.  Costa Rica: paying mother nature to multitask.  IN: The New Economy of Nature -- The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable.  Island Press, Washington, DC.  pp. 165-188.

Gillis, M. 1991.  Economics, ecology and ethics: mending the broken circle for tropical forests.  IN: Ecology, Economics, Ethics -- The Broken Circle.  Bormann, F. Herbert and Kellert, Stephen R., Eds.  Yale University Press, New Haven. pp. 155-179.

Janzen, D. H. (1988)  Tropicl ecological and biocultural restoration.  Science, 239: 243-244.

Janzen, D. (1999)  Gardenification of tropical conserved wildlands:  multitasking, multicropping, and multiusers.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 96: 5987-5994.

 

Websites used by Diana during class:

http://whyfiles.org/018forest_fire/costa_rica.html

http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr/1997/acging.html

http://costa-rica-guide.com/parks/gcaste.htm

http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu/

 

Websites used by Dr. Cardon during class on April 24

http://lba-eco.gsfc.nasa.gov/lbaeco/index.html      The LBA project in Amazonia

http://www.asb.cgiar.org/txt_only/home.htm    Alternatives to Slash and Burn

 

 

 

April 29, May 1 – Erosion control, and earthen structure through the ages

 

Hillel, Daniel J. 1991. Husbandry of the rain-fed uplands. IN: Out of the Earth -- Civilization and the Life of the Soil. The Free Press, NY, NY. pp. 95-107.

Mann, C. C. (2000) Earthmovers of the Amazon.  Science, 287: 786-789.

Erickson, C. (2000) An artificial landscape-scale fishery in the Bolivian Amazon.  Nature, 408:190- 194]

Brady, N. C. and Weil, R. R. (2002) The Nature and Properties of Soils. 13th edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Pages 763-780 and 789-793.